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Table of Contents


Introduction

What is Sinatra?

Sinatra is a Domain Specific Language (DSL) for quickly creating web-applications in Ruby.

It keeps a minimal feature set, leaving the developer to use the tools that best suit them and their application.

It doesn’t assume much about your application, apart from that:

In Sinatra, you can write short ad hoc applications or mature, larger application with the same easiness.

You can use the power of various Rubygems and other libraries available for Ruby.

Sinatra really shines when used for experiments and application mock-ups or for creating a quick interface for your code.

It isn’t a typical Model-View-Controller framework, but ties specific URL directly to relevant Ruby code and returns its output in response. It does enable you, however, to write clean, properly organized applications: separating views from application code, for instance.

Installation

The simplest way to install Sinatra is through Rubygems:

$ gem install sinatra

Dependencies

Sinatra depends on the Rack gem (http://rack.rubyforge.org).

Sinatra supports many different template engines (it uses the Tilt library internally to support practically every template engine in Ruby) For optimal experience, you should install the template engines you want to work with. The Sinatra dev team suggests using either ERB, which is included with Ruby, or installing HAML as your first template language.

$ gem install haml

Living on the Edge

The edge version of Sinatra lives in its Git repository, available at http://github.com/sinatra/sinatra/tree/master.

You can use the edge version to try new functionality or to contribute to the framework. You need to have Git version control software and bundler.

gem install bundler

To use Sinatra edge with bundler, you’ll have to create a Gemfile listing Sinatra’s and any other dependencies you’re going to need.

source :rubygems
gem 'sinatra', :git => 'git://github.com/sinatra/sinatra.git'

Here we use the gemcutter source to specify where to get Sinatra’s dependencies; alternatively you can use the git version, but that is up to you. So now we can install our bundle:

bundle install

Hello World Application

Sinatra is installed, how about making your first application?

require 'rubygems'

# If you're using bundler, you will need to add this
require 'bundler/setup'

require 'sinatra'

get '/' do
  "Hello world, it's #{Time.now} at the server!"
end

Run this application by $ ruby hello_world.rb and load http://localhost:4567 in your browser.

As you can see, Sinatra doesn’t force you to setup much infrastructure: a request to a URL evaluates some Ruby code and returns some text in response. Whatever the block returns is sent back to the browser.

Real World Applications in Sinatra

Github Services

Git hosting provider Github uses Sinatra for post-receive hooks, calling user specified services/URLs, whenever someone pushes to their repository:

Check out a full list of Sinatra apps in the wild.

About this book

This book will assume you have a basic knowledge of the Ruby scripting language and a working Ruby interpreter.

For more information about the Ruby language visit the following links:

Need Help?

The Sinatra club is small, but super-friendly. Join us on IRC at irc.freenode.org in #sinatra if you have any questions. It’s a bit slow at times, so give us a bit to get back to your questions.


Getting to know Sinatra

It’s Witchcraft

You saw in the introduction how to install Sinatra, its dependencies, and write a small “hello world” application. In this chapter you will get a whirlwind tour of the framework and familiarize yourself with its features.

Routing

Sinatra is super flexible when it comes to routing, which is essentially an HTTP method and a regular expression to match the requested URL. The four basic HTTP request methods will get you a long ways:

Routes are the backbone of your application, they’re like a guide-map to how users will navigate the actions you define for your application.

They also enable to you create RESTful web services, in a very obvious manner. Here’s an example of how one-such service might look:

get '/dogs' do
  # get a listing of all the dogs
end

get '/dog/:id' do
  # just get one dog, you might find him like this:
  @dog = Dog.find(params[:id])
  # using the params convention, you specified in your route
end

post '/dog' do
  # create a new dog listing
end

put '/dog/:id' do
  # HTTP PUT request method to update an existing dog
end

delete '/dog/:id' do
  # HTTP DELETE request method to remove a dog who's been sold!
end

As you can see from this contrived example, Sinatra’s routing is very easy to get along with. Don’t be fooled, though, Sinatra can do some pretty amazing things with Routes.

Take a more in-depth look at Sinatra’s routes, and see for yourself.

Filters

Sinatra offers a way for you too hook into the request chain of your application via Filters.

Filters define two methods available, before and after which both accept a block to yield corresponding the request and optionally take a URL pattern to match to the request.

before

The before method will let you pass a block to be evaluated before each and every route gets processed.

before do
  MyStore.connect unless MyStore.connected?
end

get '/' do
  @list = MyStore.find(:all)
  erb :index
end

In this example, we’ve set up a before filter to connect using a contrived MyStore module.

after

The after method lets you pass a block to be evaluated after each and every route gets processed.

after do
  MyStore.disconnect
end

As you can see from this example, we’re asking the MyStore module to disconnect after the request has been processed.

Pattern Matching

Filters optionally take a pattern to be matched against the requested URI during processing. Here’s a quick example you could use to run a contrived authenticate! method before accessing any “admin” type requests.

before '/admin/*' do
  authenticate!
end

Handlers

Handlers are top-level methods available in Sinatra to take care of common HTTP routines. For instance there are handlers for halting and passing.

There are also handlers for redirection:

get '/' do
  redirect '/someplace/else'
end

This will return a 302 HTTP Response to /someplace/else.

You can even use the Sinatra handler for sessions, just add this to your application or to a configure block:

enable :sessions

Then you will be able to use the default cookie based session handler in your application:

get '/' do
  session['counter'] ||= 0
  session['counter'] += 1
  "You've hit this page #{session['counter']} times!" 
end

Handlers can be extremely useful when used properly, probably the most common use is the params convention, which gives you access to any parameters passed in via the request object, or generated in your route pattern.

Templates

Sinatra is built upon an incredibly powerful templating engine, Tilt. Which, is designed to be a “thin interface” for frameworks that want to support multiple template engines.

Some of Tilt’s other all-star features include:

And includes support for some of the best engines available, such as HAML, Less CSS, and coffee-script.

All you need to get started is erb, which is included in Ruby. Views by default look in the views directory in your application root.

So in your route you would have:

get '/' do
  erb :index
  # renders views/index.erb
 
  # OR look in a sub-directory

  erb :"dogs/index"
  # would instead render views/dogs/index.erb
end

Another default convention of Sinatra, is the layout, which automatically looks for a views/layout template file to render before loading any other views. In the case of using erb, your views/layout.erb would look something like this:

<html>
  <head>..</head>
  <body>
    <%= yield %>
  </body>
</html>

The possibilities are pretty much endless, here’s a quick list of some of the most common use-cases covered in the README:

For more specific details on how Sinatra handles templates, check the README.

Helpers

Helpers are a great way to provide reusable code snippets in your application.

helpers do
  def bar(name)
    "#{name}bar"
  end
end

get '/:name' do
  bar(params[:name])
end

Organizing your application


Views

RSS Feed

The builder gem/library for creating XML is required in this recipe.

Assume that your site url is http://liftoff.msfc.nasa.gov/.

get '/rss.xml' do
  builder do |xml|
    xml.instruct! :xml, :version => '1.0'
    xml.rss :version => "2.0" do
      xml.channel do
        xml.title "Liftoff News"
        xml.description "Liftoff to Space Exploration."
        xml.link "http://liftoff.msfc.nasa.gov/"

        @posts.each do |post|
          xml.item do
            xml.title post.title
            xml.link "http://liftoff.msfc.nasa.gov/posts/#{post.id}"
            xml.description post.body
            xml.pubDate Time.parse(post.created_at.to_s).rfc822()
            xml.guid "http://liftoff.msfc.nasa.gov/posts/#{post.id}"
          end
        end
      end
    end
  end
end

This will render the RSS inline, directly from the handler.

CoffeeScript

To render CoffeeScript templates you first need the coffee-script gem and therubyracer, or access to the coffee binary.

Here’s an example of using CoffeeScript with Sinatra’s template rendering engine Tilt:

## You'll need to require coffee-script in your app
require 'coffee-script'

get '/application.js' do
  coffee :application
end

Renders ./views/application.coffee.

This works great if you have access to nodejs or therubyracer gem on your platform of choice and hosting environment. If that’s not the case, but you’d still like to use CoffeeScript, you can precompile your scripts using the coffee binary:

coffee -c -o public/javascripts/ src/

Or you can use this example rake task to compile them for you with the coffee-script gem, which can use either therubyracer gem or the coffee binary:

require 'coffee-script'

namespace :js do
  desc "compile coffee-scripts from ./src to ./public/javascripts"
  task :compile do
    source = "#{File.dirname(__FILE__)}/src/"
    javascripts = "#{File.dirname(__FILE__)}/public/javascripts/"
    
    Dir.foreach(source) do |cf|
      unless cf == '.' || cf == '..' 
        js = CoffeeScript.compile File.read("#{source}#{cf}") 
        open "#{javascripts}#{cf.gsub('.coffee', '.js')}", 'w' do |f|
          f.puts js
        end 
      end 
    end
  end
end

Now, with this rake task you can compile your coffee-scripts to public/javascripts by using the rake js:compile command.

Resources

If you get stuck or want to look into other ways of implementing CoffeeScript in your application, these are a great place to start:


Models

DataMapper

Start out by getting the DataMapper gem if you don’t already have it, and then making sure it’s in your application. A call to setup as usual will get the show started, and this example will include a ‘Post’ model.

require 'rubygems'
require 'sinatra'
require 'data_mapper' # metagem, requires common plugins too.

# need install dm-sqlite-adapter
DataMapper::setup(:default, "sqlite3://#{Dir.pwd}/blog.db")

class Post
    include DataMapper::Resource
    property :id, Serial
    property :title, String
    property :body, Text
    property :created_at, DateTime
end

# Perform basic sanity checks and initialize all relationships
# Call this when you've defined all your models
DataMapper.finalize

# automatically create the post table
Post.auto_upgrade!

Once that is all well and good, you can actually start developing your application!

get '/' do
    # get the latest 20 posts
    @posts = Post.all(:order => [ :id.desc ], :limit => 20)
    erb :index
end

Finally, the view at ./view/index.html:

<% @posts.each do |post| %>
    <h3><%= post.title %></h3>
    <p><%= post.body %></p>
<% end %>

For more information on DataMapper, check out the project documentation.


Helpers

Implementation of rails style partials

Using partials in your views is a great way to keep them clean. Since Sinatra takes the hands off approach to framework design, you’ll have to implement a partial handler yourself.

Here is a really basic version:

# Usage: partial :foo
helpers do
  def partial(page, options={})
    haml page, options.merge!(:layout => false)
  end
end

A more advanced version that would handle passing local options, and looping over a hash would look like:

# Render the page once:
# Usage: partial :foo
# 
# foo will be rendered once for each element in the array, passing in a local variable named "foo"
# Usage: partial :foo, :collection => @my_foos    

helpers do
  def partial(template, *args)
    options = args.extract_options!
    options.merge!(:layout => false)
    if collection = options.delete(:collection) then
      collection.inject([]) do |buffer, member|
        buffer << haml(template, options.merge(
                                  :layout => false, 
                                  :locals => {template.to_sym => member}
                                )
                     )
      end.join("\n")
    else
      haml(template, options)
    end
  end
end

Middleware

Sinatra rides on Rack, a minimal standard interface for Ruby web frameworks. One of Rack’s most interesting capabilities for application developers is support for “middleware” – components that sit between the server and your application monitoring and/or manipulating the HTTP request/response to provide various types of common functionality.

Sinatra makes building Rack middleware pipelines a cinch via a top-level use method:

require 'sinatra'
require 'my_custom_middleware'

use Rack::Lint
use MyCustomMiddleware

get '/hello' do
  'Hello World'
end

Rack HTTP Basic Authentication

The semantics of “use” are identical to those defined for the Rack::Builder DSL (most frequently used from rackup files). For example, the use method accepts multiple/variable args as well as blocks:

use Rack::Auth::Basic do |username, password|
  username == 'admin' && password == 'secret'
end

Rack is distributed with a variety of standard middleware for logging, debugging, URL routing, authentication, and session handling. Sinatra uses many of of these components automatically based on configuration so you typically don’t have to use them explicitly.


Testing

Using Rack::Test

Testing is an integral part of software development. In this section we will look into testing the Sinatra application itself. For unit testing your models or other classes, please consult the documentation of frameworks used (including your test framework itself). Sinatra itself uses Contest for testing, but feel free to use any framework you like.

Bryan Helmkamp’s Rack::Test offers tools for mocking Rack request, sending those to your application and inspecting the response all wrapped in a small DSL.

Firing Requests

You import the DSL by including Rack::Test::Methods into your test framework. It is even usable without a framework and for other tasks besides testing.

Imagine you have an application like this:

# myapp.rb
require 'sinatra'

get '/' do
  "Welcome to my page!"
end

post '/' do
  "Hello #{params[:name]}!"
end

You have to define an app method pointing to your application class (which is Sinatra::Application per default):

begin 
  # try to use require_relative first
  # this only works for 1.9
  require_relative 'my-app.rb'
rescue NameError
  # oops, must be using 1.8
  # no problem, this will load it then
  require File.expand_path('my-app.rb', __FILE__)
end

require 'test/unit'
require 'rack/test'

class MyAppTest < Test::Unit::TestCase
  include Rack::Test::Methods

  def app
    Sinatra::Application
  end
  
  def test_my_default
    get '/'
    assert last_response.ok?
    assert_equal 'Welcome to my page!', last_response.body
  end

  def test_with_params
    post '/', :name => 'Frank'
    assert_equal 'Hello Frank!', last_response.body
  end
end

Modifying env

While parameters can be send via the second argument of a get/post/put/delete call (see the post example above), the env hash (and thereby the HTTP headers) can be modified with a third argument:

get '/foo', {}, 'HTTP_USER_AGENT' => 'Songbird 1.0'

This also allows passing internal env settings:

get '/foo', {}, 'rack.session' => { 'user_id' => 20 }

Cookies

For example, add the following to your app to test against:

"Hello #{request.cookies['foo']}!"

Use set_cookie for setting and removing cookies, and the access them in your response:

response.set_cookie 'foo=bar'
get '/'
assert_equal 'Hello bar!', last_response.body 

Asserting Expectations About The Response

Once a request method has been invoked, the following attributes are available for making assertions:

Assertions are typically made against the last_response object. Consider the following examples:

def test_it_says_hello_world
  get '/'
  assert last_response.ok?
  assert_equal 'Hello World'.length.to_s, last_response.headers['Content-Length']
  assert_equal 'Hello World', last_response.body
end

Optional Test Setup

The Rack::Test mock request methods send requests to the return value of a method named app.

If you’re testing a modular application that has multiple Sinatra::Base subclasses, simply set the app method to return your particular class.

  def app
    MySinatraApp
  end

If you’re using a classic style Sinatra application, then you need to return an instance of Sinatra::Application.

  def app
    Sinatra::Application
  end

Making Rack::Test available to all test cases

If you’d like the Rack::Test methods to be available to all test cases without having to include it each time, you can include the Rack::Test module in the Test::Unit::TestCase class:

require 'test/unit'
require 'rack/test'

class Test::Unit::TestCase
  include Rack::Test::Methods
end

Now all TestCase subclasses will automatically have Rack::Test available to them.


Development Techniques

Automatic Code Reloading

Restarting an application manually after every code change is both slow and painful. It can easily be avoided by using a tool for automatic code reloading.

Shotgun

Shotgun will actually restart your application on every request. This has the advantage over other reloading techniques of always producing correct results. However, since it actually restarts your application, it is rather slow compared to the alternatives. Moreover, since it relies on fork, it is not available on Windows and JRuby.

Usage is rather simple:

gem install shotgun # run only once, to install shotgun
shotgun my_app.rb

If you want to run a modular application, create a file named config.ru with similar content:

require 'my_app'
run MyApp

And run it by calling shotgun without arguments.

The shotgun executable takes arguments similar to those of the rackup command, run shotgun --help for more information.


Deployment

Heroku

This is the easiest configuration + deployment option. Heroku has full support for Sinatra applications. Deploying to Heroku is simply a matter of pushing to a remote git repository.

Steps to deploy to Heroku:

  1. Here is an example config.ru file that does two things. First, it requires your main app file, whatever it’s called. In the example, it will look for myapp.rb. Second, run your application. If you’re subclassing, use the subclass’s name, otherwise use Sinatra::Application.

     require "myapp"
    
     run Sinatra::Application
  2. Create the app and push to it

    From the root-directory of the application
    
    $ heroku create <app-name>  # This will add heroku as a remote
    $ git push heroku master

For more details see this


Contributing

There are plenty of ways to contribute to Sinatra.

Got a recipe or tutorial? Check out the Sinatra Recipes project for all of the recent additions from the community.

If you’re looking for something to work on be sure to check the issue tracker. Once you have forked the project, feel free to send us a pull request.

Check the wiki for more information.

Join us on IRC (#sinatra at irc.freenode.org) if you need help with anything.